Basic of maven tool on Automation front



Basic of maven tool on Automation front


A build tool is a tool that automates everything related to building the software project. Maven, is an innovative software project management tool, provide new concept of a project object model(POM) file to manage project's build , dependency and documentation, this session is to target the beginners in helping them understand the basic of maven tool on Automation front

 Why Automation Build Tool 

  1. Accelerate the compile and link processing.
  2. It will minimize the human errors while building a software.
  3. Reduce redundant tasks.
Maven is a 
  1. Building tool.
  2. Dependency management tool
  3. Project management tool  
Core concept in Maven depends on following points 
  1. Dependencies and repositories 
  2. Build Life Cycle 
  3. Phases
What is Dependencies

Dependencies are required jars which are required to build the project.
Include all Jars and plugins in project.

Maven Repository 

3 types of maven repository 
  1. Local Repository : Local repository is a folder location in development machine and it gets crated when you run any maven command for the first time. (By default folder name is .m2)
  2. Central Repository : Maven central repository is repository provided by Maven community. It contains a large number of commonly used libraries.  http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/
  3. Remote repository :Some time maven dose not find required file in central and due to this build process gets failed.  To overcome this problem Maven provides concept of Remote Repository which is developer's own custom repository containing required libraries or other project jars.  
Sample POM for Remote repository 

how to use Remote repository in POM

Build Life Cycle

Maven has mainly 3 build in life cycles
  1. Clean
  2. Site
  3. Default
What is POM 
A Project Object Model or POM is the fundamental unit of work in Maven. It is an XML file that contains information about the project and configuration details used by Maven to build the project
  • Maven reads POM file to build the project. 
  • Specifies project information, plugins, goals, dependencies and profiles. 
Sample POM 


Sample pom for cucumber


Sample project structure for Maven project  


maven project sample

In my next post I'll explain how to configure MAVEN project and sample selenium maven project. 

Cucumber scenario outline with examples


Cucumber scenario outline with examples


Scenario outline basically replace the value with the datatable value.  Here each row of the data table consider as a new scenario.  For example suppose I want to login into the www.facebook.com site.  As of now we have execute only one scenario. We have provided username and password for login into the facebook site.  If you closely look into the site you can see there 3 different ways to login into the application.

  • We cant provide email id and password.
  • We can provide phone number and password.
  • We can provide user name and password. 
Now we can achieve above mentioned scenarios in 3 different scenario with 3 different input type 

Scenario 1:

Feature: Login Application
  As a user
  I want to login to the application

  Scenario: Valid user email id and password
    Given I launch the url "https://www.fb.com"
    When I enter password and email
    And I click on login button
    Then I should see the login page

Scenario 2:


Feature: Login Application
  As a user
  I want to login to the application

  Scenario: Valid user phone number and password
    Given I launch the url "https://www.fb.com"
    When I enter password and phone no.
    And I click on login button
    Then I should see the login page

Scenario 3:

Feature: Login Application
  As a user
  I wa
  Scenario: Valid user name and password
    Given I launch the url "https://www.fb.com"
    When I enter password and username
    And I click on login button
    Then I should see the login pagent to login to the application

Here you can see the scenario statements are same for all there scenario, only difference is that the parameter(user name / phone number/ email id). Here is the scenario outline feature comes into the picture. 

We can design this login feature in such a way where  scenario will be only one but test data will be 3 and the scenario will be execute 3 times. 

Till now we have used Scenario keyword in feature file but iteration purpose we should use Scenario Outline instead of Scenario.


Feature file : ScenarioOutline.feature

Feature: Login Application
  As a user
  I want to login to the application

  Scenario Outline: Valid user name and password
    Given I launch the url "https://www.fb.com"
    When I provide "<username>" and "<password>"
    And I click on login button
    Then I should see the login page

    Examples: 
      | username          | password |
      |        987654210 | [email protected] |
      | username1          | [email protected] |

Here the Examples annotation  describe the range of iteration , means how many times the test case will execute. In this example the test case will execute 3 times.

Complete steps 
 package com.Cucumber.steps;  
 import java.util.List;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.By;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;  
 import org.testng.Assert;  
 import cucumber.api.DataTable;  
 import cucumber.api.Scenario;  
 import cucumber.api.java.After;  
 import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;  
 import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;  
 import cucumber.api.java.en.When;  
 public class DemoLoginSteps2 {  
  WebDriver driver;  
  @Given("^I launch the url \"([^\"]*)\"$")  
  public void i_launch_the_url(String arg1) throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "C:\\Users\\anjan\\Desktop\\cucmber\\chromedriver\\chromedriver.exe");  
  driver = new ChromeDriver();  
  driver.get("https://www.fb.com");  
  }  
  @When("^I provide \"([^\"]*)\" and \"([^\"]*)\"$")  
  public void i_provide_and(String arg1, String arg2) throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  driver.findElement(By.name("email")).sendKeys(arg1);  
  driver.findElement(By.name("pass")).sendKeys(arg2);  
  }  
  @When("^I click on login button$")  
  public void i_click_on_login_button() throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@data-testid='royal_login_button']")).click();  
  }  
  @Then("^I should see the login page$")  
  public void i_should_see_the_Error_message() throws Throwable {  
  try{  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
   if(driver.findElement(By.name("email")).isDisplayed()){  
   Assert.assertTrue(true);  
   }else  
   Assert.assertTrue(false);  
  }catch(Exception NoSuchElementException){  
   Assert.assertTrue(false);  
  }finally{  
   driver.quit();  
  }    
  }  
 }  


You can run the test from feature file or from testng xml. If you want to execute using testng the you need to write runner class first and then testng xml.

Runner class
 package com.Cucumber.Runners;  
 import cucumber.api.CucumberOptions;  
 import cucumber.api.testng.AbstractTestNGCucumberTests;  
 @CucumberOptions(  
  features = "src/com/Cucumber/features/ScenarioOutline.feature",   
  glue = "com.Cucumber.steps",   
  plugin = { "pretty", "html:target/cucumber-report" },   
  monochrome = true)  
 public class RunTest extends AbstractTestNGCucumberTests {  
 }  


TestNgXML







How to use Datatable in cucumber


How to implement Datatable in cucumber

How to use Datatable in Cucumber


In my previous post How to install and configure cucumber -java  I have discussed how to install Cucumber and how to run cucumber program in java. In the previous post, I did not show how to parameterize the data. Means previously we passed parameters in the step line. Now we declared the variable in the feature file. So we are using Tables as arguments to Steps. 

I have created one feature file named: dataDriven.feature under com.Cucumber.features package.

how to user cucumber datatable

dataDriven.feature is almost same as the previous demo.feature . The only difference is the "when" .
previously it was " When I enter password and username" and now 

When I provide password and username
      | testname | [email protected] |




dataTable feature file 
 Feature: Login Application  
  As a user  
  I want to login to the application  
  Scenario: Valid user name and password  
   Given I launch the url "https://www.fb.com"  
   When I provide password and username  
    | testname | [email protected] |  
   And I click on login button  
   Then I should see the login page  

Now we need to write down the step file. As you see there are very few changes in scenario/feature file so we can re use all the methods except the step written under "@when"

The implementation of the @when step


 @When("^I provide password and username$")  
  public void i_enter_password_and_username(DataTable rawdata) throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  List<List<String>> data = rawdata.raw();  
  driver.findElement(By.name("email")).sendKeys(data.get(0).get(0));  
  driver.findElement(By.name("pass")).sendKeys(data.get(0).get(1));   
  }   


The complete steps 

 package com.Cucumber.steps; import java.util.List;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.By;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;  
 import org.testng.Assert;  
 import cucumber.api.DataTable;  
 import cucumber.api.Scenario;  
 import cucumber.api.java.After;  
 import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;  
 import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;  
 import cucumber.api.java.en.When;  
 public class DemoLoginSteps {  
  WebDriver driver;  
  @Given("^I launch the url \"([^\"]*)\"$")  
  public void i_launch_the_url(String arg1) throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "C:\\Users\\anjan\\Desktop\\cucmber\\chromedriver\\chromedriver.exe");  
  driver = new ChromeDriver();  
  driver.get("http://www.fb.com");  
  }  
  @When("^I click on login button$")  
  public void i_click_on_login_button() throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@data-testid='royal_login_button']")).click();  
  }  
  @Then("^I should see the login page$")  
  public void i_should_see_the_Error_message() throws Throwable {  
  try{  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
   if(driver.findElement(By.name("email")).isDisplayed()){  
   Assert.assertTrue(true);  
   }else  
   Assert.assertTrue(false);  
  }catch(Exception NoSuchElementException){  
   Assert.assertTrue(false);  
  }finally{  
   driver.quit();  
  }  
  }  
  @When("^I provide password and username$")  
  public void i_enter_password_and_username(DataTable rawdata) throws Throwable {  
    // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions  
  List<List<String>> data = rawdata.raw();  
  driver.findElement(By.name("email")).sendKeys(data.get(0).get(0));  
  driver.findElement(By.name("pass")).sendKeys(data.get(0).get(1));   
  }  
 }  




If you want to execute cucumber test from testng xml or just left click on feature file and Run As Cucumber Feature.


How to install and configure cucumber -java

How to install Cucumber - java in eclipse

How to install cucumber java?

Prerequisite for installing Cucumber 


1. jdk (Latest jdk recomanded).
3.Eclipse plugins

   i. TestNG plugin - http://beust.com/eclipse
   ii. Cucumber eclipse plugin - http://cucumber.github.com/cucumber-eclipse/update-site

You need to download few cucumber related jars.

1. cucumber-core-1.2.5
2. cucumber-html-0.2.3
3. cucumber-java-1.2.5
4. cucumber-jvm-deps-1.0.5
5. cucumber-testng-1.2.5
6. gherkin-2.12.2
7. selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0
8. testng-6.11


To configure cucumber java you need to follow few steps

Step 1  :  Open eclipse and configure workspace 

how to install cucumber- java

Step 2  : Create a new project in eclipse  

You can create an new project from File > New >Java Project . You need to provide a name for that project , say "TestCucumber" and tap on Finish button. You will find "TestCucumber" is created in left side panel of eclipse IDE. 

how to install cucumber- java



Step 3 :  Configure java build path from eclipse .

You need to configure java build path . Means you need to add TestNG library and required external jars with this new project. 

a. Left click on the project. 



b.  Click on the Build Path > Configure Build Path ..




c.  Click on Add library and and TestNG and Click Next > Finish . TestNG will be added for this project.



d. Click on Add External JARs,, and navigate to downloaded location where there cucumber related jars are there. 

add external jars for cucumber

e.  Click on Open the Click on Ok button .. All required jars will be added with the project.

Step 4:  Create 3 package in side the TestCucumber/src 

a.  com.Cucumber.features :  This package consist all feature files. 
b  com.Cucumber.steps : Actual java program where selenium steps are written. 
c. com.Cucumber.Runners : This file consist configuration for the test. 

There I am creating a sample Cucumber project 

Sample feature file

Feature: Login Application
  As a user
  I want to login to the application

  Scenario: Valid user name and password
    Given I launch the url "http://www.fb.com"
    When I enter password and username
    And I click on login button
    Then I should see the Error message

You need to create a file under com.Cucumber.features package . File extension should be .feature
Cucumber feature file


Name of the sample feature file is demo.feature

Now you need to create actual selenium file under com.Cucumber.steps package.

Sample step java file 


package com.Cucumber.steps;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.testng.Assert;

import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;
import cucumber.api.java.en.When;

public class DemoLoginSteps {
 WebDriver driver;
 @Given("^I launch the url \"([^\"]*)\"$")
 public void i_launch_the_url(String arg1) throws Throwable {
     // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions
  System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "C:\\Users\\anjan\\Desktop\\cucmber\\chromedriver\\chromedriver.exe");
  driver = new ChromeDriver();
  driver.get("http://www.fb.com");
     
 }

 @When("^I enter password and username$")
 public void i_enter_password_and_username() throws Throwable {
     // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions
  driver.findElement(By.name("email")).sendKeys("test");
  driver.findElement(By.name("pass")).sendKeys("cucumber");
  
 }

 @When("^I click on login button$")
 public void i_click_on_login_button() throws Throwable {
     // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions
 driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@data-testid='royal_login_button']")).click();
 }

 @Then("^I should see the login page$")
 public void i_should_see_the_Error_message() throws Throwable {
  try{
     // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions
   if(driver.findElement(By.name("email")).isDisplayed()){
    Assert.assertTrue(true);
   }else
    Assert.assertTrue(false);
  }catch(Exception NoSuchElementException){
    Assert.assertTrue(false);
  }finally{
   driver.quit();
  }
     
 }

}


Name of the step file is DemoLoginSteps

You can generate step code automatically, but you need to clear few lines of code like " throw new PendingException(); "from each methods and you need to write down the actual  selenium steps as per your requirements. Auto generated file is nothing but a skeleton of the methods.

How to generate step file automatically 

You just need to left click on the feature file and click on the Run As Cucumber feature . You will file unimplemented methods are displayed on eclipse console screen.
How to generate test step in cucumber
Create a RunTest Class under om.Cucumber.Runners package (You need to create om.Cucumber.Runners package under src folder)

Sample runner class


CucumberOptions(
     features = "src/com/Cucumber/features/Login.feature", 
     glue = "com.Cucumber.steps", 
     plugin = { "pretty", "html:target/cucumber-report" }, 
     monochrome = true)

public class RunTest extends AbstractTestNGCucumberTests {

}
Name of runner class is RunTest

How to write runner class using testng


feature  : Location of feature file in your project
glue : package name for the step java file
plugin : Reporting purpose
monochrome :This option can either set as true or false. If it is set as true, it means that the console output for the Cucumber test are much more readable. And if it is set as false, then the console output is not as readable as it should be. For practice just add the code ‘monochrome = true‘ in TestRunner class.

Create a testng file under project to run the RunTest file.

Testng XML

Cucumber with testng

You can run the test case without writing the xml file but testng xml will help you to create CI integration very easily.

How to run test case without testng xml 

 You need to run left click on the feature file and choose Run As Cucumber Feature.

How to run test case using testng xml

You just need to left click on the testng xml file and choose Run As TestNG suite.

How to access web table element in selenium webdriver


How to access web table element in selenium web driver

There are 2 types of HTML table possible in the web.
  • Static web table.
  • Dynamic web table. 
Static web table:  Normally static tables are static in nature, means a number of column and row is fixed, it will never increase in runtime and data inside the each cell is also fixed.
Dynamic web table:  It is just opposite of static web table, here row, column and cell data could be not fixed or we can say dynamic.  It will change at runtime. 


We need to follow few steps to retrieve data from web table 

  1. We need to uniquely identify table object.
  2. Count number of rows present in the table.
  3. Count number of column present in each row. 
  4. Get the value from each cell.  

Step 1. We need to uniquely identify table object

Now we can start with the below table. We need to identify the web table uniquely. 

how to find element from web table using selenium

how to find element from web table using selenium
Here we can see there an id for that highlighted table.  The id is “ customers “.  We know how to identify the web element using XPath or other selenium locators, you can refer my previous post also. 

XPath for this table object

//*[@id="customers"]

Java code 

driver.findelement(By.xapth(“//*[@id="customers"]”);


Step 2: Count Number of rows present in the table.


In HTML table row denoted as <tr>. So we need to count the number of <tr> present under the table. 
We can directly count the number of rows is available on the table. 

how to find element from web table using selenium

XPath for row count
//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr

Above XPath will return 7 element




Java code 

int rowCount = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr")).size()

Step 3: Count Number of column present in each row.

Now we need to iterate each row and find out how many columns are there for that row. 

how to find web element from web table using selenium

Xpath for column count for first row (except header)
//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr[1]/child::td
Above XPath will return 3 <td> tag

Java code  

int columnCount = driver.findElements(By.xpath//[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr[1]/child::td")).size()

Step 4: Get the value from each cell.

Java code

driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr["+row+"]/child::td["+column+"]"));
element.getText()

Complete java code to iterate each row and column and print the value 

 public static void main(String argc[]){  
 System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver","D:/workspace/TestProject/src/chromedriver.exe");   
 driver = new ChromeDriver() ;  
 driver.get("https://www.w3schools.com/html/html_tables.asp");  
 int rowCount = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr")).size();  
 for (int i=1;i<=rowCount;i++){  
   int columnCount =  driver.findElements(By.xpath("//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr["+i+"]/child::td")).size();  
    for(int j=1;j<=columnCount;j++){  
      WebElement element =  driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='customers']/child::*/child::tr["+i+"]/child::td["+j+"]"));  
      System.out.println(element.getText()+ "  ");  
    }  
   System.out.println();  
  }   
   driver.quit();  
 }  

Dynamically changing proxy in browsers with Selenium webdriver



Dynamically changing proxy in different browsers with Selenium webdriver

how to change the proxy in selenium


The earliest and recommended way to change the proxy settings is to change the proxy manually from the browser settings. But in the automation perspective manual intervention is not a good approach.  So what we need to do is to change the proxy settings in runtime. Now, the question is why is it required to change the proxy. The answer is simple. While trying to access some secure application a proxy is needed because otherwise it is impossible to access that very application. Or, while working on a secure environment where every traffic must go through a specific proxy, providing a separate proxy is absolutely necessary to access the application.

Setting up the proxy manually from a web browser



setting up proxy using selenium
In the above image it can be seen that there is a section for the proxy server.  Now the required process is to set the proxy server in Address field and the port number in the port field.
How to change the proxy settings in runtime.

There are several ways to change the proxy settings in runtime and creating object of proxy class is one of them.

Chrome and Internet explorer share the same proxy settings, so same line of code will work for both of the browsers. But when it comes to Firefox there are some changes in that line of code. The Firefox Version 48 and the newer versions require GeckoDriver and a different setup for adding proxy. As  per seleniumhq
“Firefox maintains its proxy configuration in a profile. You can preset the proxy in a profile and use that Firefox Profile or you can set it on profile that is created on the fly as is shown in the following example. With GeckoDriver the proxy has to be passed through the required capabilities.”



Proxy setup for IE,Chrome and Firefox(upto 47)
 String PROXY = "abc.xyz.com:8060";  
 org.openqa.selenium.Proxy proxy = new org.openqa.selenium.Proxy();  
    proxy.setHttpProxy(PROXY)  
      .setFtpProxy(PROXY)  
      .setSslProxy(PROXY);  
 DesiredCapabilities cap = new DesiredCapabilities();  
 cap.setCapability(CapabilityType.PROXY, proxy);  

Proxy setup for Firefox(version 48+)

 String PROXY = "localhost";  
 int PORT = 8080;  
 com.google.gson.JsonObject json = new com.google.gson.JsonObject();  
 json.addProperty("proxyType", "MANUAL");  
 json.addProperty("httpProxy", PROXY);  
 json.addProperty("httpProxyPort", PORT);  
 json.addProperty("sslProxy", PROXY);  
 json.addProperty("sslProxyPort", PORT);  
 DesiredCapabilities cap = new DesiredCapabilities();  
 cap.setCapability("proxy", json);  
 GeckoDriverService service =new GeckoDriverService.Builder(firefoxBinary)  
  .usingDriverExecutable(new File("path to geckodriver"))  
  .usingAnyFreePort()  
  .usingAnyFreePort()  
  .build();  
 service.start();  
 // GeckoDriver currently needs the Proxy set in RequiredCapabilities  
 driver = new FirefoxDriver(service, cap, cap);  

There is the complete code for chrome browser

 package com.test;  
 import java.io.File;  
 import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;  
 import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.remote.CapabilityType;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.remote.DesiredCapabilities;  
 public class FullPage_Screenshot {  
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {  
    String PROXY = "abc.xyz.com:8060";  
    org.openqa.selenium.Proxy proxy = new org.openqa.selenium.Proxy();  
    proxy.setHttpProxy(PROXY)  
      .setFtpProxy(PROXY)  
      .setSslProxy(PROXY);  
    DesiredCapabilities cap = new DesiredCapabilities();  
    cap.setCapability(CapabilityType.PROXY, proxy);  
    //WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(cap);  
    System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:/workspace/TestProject/src/chromedriver.exe");   
  WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(cap) ;  
     driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(20, TimeUnit.SECONDS);  
     driver.get("https://www.google.com");  
     driver.manage().window().maximize();    
     driver.quit();  
   }   
 }  

How To Take Entire Page Screenshots In Selenium


capture full page screenshots using selenium

Normally, selenium can take screenshots using ‘TakeScreenshot’ interface. But many times selenium automation testers require full webpage screenshots for the purpose of reporting and validation. If we take screenshots using ‘TakeScreenshot’ interface we can only capture a view point of a webpage.

We can capture the default screenshot using the code written below.


 import java.io.File;  
 import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;  
 import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;  
 public class FullPage_Screenshot {  
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {  
    System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:/workspace/TestProject/src/chromedriver.exe");   
  WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver() ;  
     driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(20, TimeUnit.SECONDS);  
     driver.manage().window().maximize();    
     try{          
       File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);   
       FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("D:\\screenShot1.png"));  
       System.out.println("Screenshot is captured and stored in your D: Drive");  
     }    
     catch (Exception e)  
     {   
       System.out.println("Error in loading the Google page");  
     }   
   }   
 }  
To take the screenshot of an entire page in selenium we need to take the help from javascript. Because ‘selenium java’ can execute javascript and javascript can interact with web browser very well, so taking help from javascript can be a very useful process.

 package capturescreenshot;  
 import java.awt.Graphics2D;  
 import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;  
 import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;  
 import java.io.File;  
 import java.io.IOException;  
 import javax.imageio.ImageIO;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.JavascriptExecutor;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.remote.Augmenter;  
 /**  
 * Full Page Screenshot utility for Selenium Webdriver  
 *  
 * @author  
  */  
 public class ScreenShot {  
   private static int scrollTimeout = 0;  
   public ScreenShot(int timeout) {  
     scrollTimeout = timeout;  
   }  
   private static String getFullHeight(WebDriver driver) {  
     JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;  
     return js.executeScript("return document.body.scrollHeight").toString();  
   }  
   private static int getFullWidth(WebDriver driver) {  
     JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;  
     return ((Long) js.executeScript("return window.innerWidth",  
         new Object[0])).intValue();  
   }  
   private static int getWindowHeight(WebDriver driver) {  
     JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;  
     return ((Long) js.executeScript("return window.innerHeight",  
         new Object[0])).intValue();  
   }  
   private static void waitForScrolling() {  
     try {  
       Thread.sleep(scrollTimeout);  
     } catch (InterruptedException ignored) {  
     }  
   }  
   private static BufferedImage getScreenshotNative(WebDriver wd) {  
     ByteArrayInputStream imageArrayStream = null;  
     TakesScreenshot takesScreenshot = (TakesScreenshot) new Augmenter().augment(wd);  
     try {  
       imageArrayStream = new ByteArrayInputStream(takesScreenshot.getScreenshotAs(OutputType.BYTES));  
       return ImageIO.read(imageArrayStream);  
     } catch (IOException e) {  
       throw new RuntimeException("Can not parse screenshot data", e);  
     } finally {  
       try {  
         if (imageArrayStream != null) {  
           imageArrayStream.close();  
         }  
       } catch (IOException ignored) {  
       }  
     }  
   }  
   public static BufferedImage getScreenshot(WebDriver wd) {  
     JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) wd;  
     int allH = Integer.parseInt(getFullHeight(wd));  
     int allW = getFullWidth(wd);  
     int winH = getWindowHeight(wd);  
     int scrollTimes = allH / winH;  
     int tail = allH - winH * scrollTimes;  
     BufferedImage finalImage = new BufferedImage(allW, allH, BufferedImage.TYPE_4BYTE_ABGR);  
     Graphics2D graphics = finalImage.createGraphics();  
     for (int n = 0; n &lt; scrollTimes; n++) {  
       js.executeScript("scrollTo(0, arguments[0])", winH * n);  
       waitForScrolling();  
       BufferedImage part = getScreenshotNative(wd);  
       graphics.drawImage(part, 0, n * winH, null);  
     }  
     if (tail &gt; 0) {  
       js.executeScript("scrollTo(0, document.body.scrollHeight)");  
       waitForScrolling();  
       BufferedImage last = getScreenshotNative(wd);  
       BufferedImage tailImage = last.getSubimage(0, last.getHeight() - tail, last.getWidth(), tail);  
       graphics.drawImage(tailImage, 0, scrollTimes * winH, null);  
     }  
     graphics.dispose();  
     return finalImage;  
   }  
   public static void EShot(WebDriver wd, String filename) {  
     try {  
       ImageIO.write(getScreenshot(wd), "PNG", new File(filename));  
     } catch (IOException e) {  
       System.out.println(e);  
     }  
   }  
   public static void main (String argc[]){  
     System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:/workspace/TestProject/src/chromedriver.exe");  
     WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();  
     driver.get("https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India");  
      ScreenShot.EShot(driver, "d:/test" + ".png");  
      driver.quit();  
   }  
 }  

How to Run Webdriver in chrome browser?


how to open chrome in selenium



How to Run Webdriver in chrome browser?


To run the Chrome browser in selenium we need to download the Chrome driver separately from the below link
https://sites.google.com/a/chromium.org/chromedriver/.  It will provide you with the latest driver and it’s nothing but an ‘.exe file’.  You just need to download it and unzip the file in a proper location.

I can assume that you already know how to install selenium and setup a selenium project. If you do not know how to then you can refer to my previous post selenium installation process for the purpose of setting up a selenium project.

The next thing you need to do is to set the property for Chrome driver and specify its location via the property ‘webdriver.chrome.driver’ as stated below.


System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "pathofchromedriver");


For the next part what you need to do is to provide the path of the Chrome driver. In my case, my Chrome driver is located in ‘D:/workspace/TestProject/src/chromedriver.exe’ . Here,yYou need to provide your Chrome driver path at "pathofchromedriver"; and after that, you need to initialize the chormeDriver


WebDriver  driver = new ChromeDriver();


Open the browser using the ‘get’ method

driver.get(https://www.google.com");

Let’s try to open a Chrome browser using selenium webdriver.
 package com.test;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  
 import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;  
 public class SeleniumMethod {  
  static WebDriver driver;  
  public static void main(String argc[]){  
  openURL();  
  }  
  public static void openURL(){  
  System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:/workspace/TestProject/src/chromedriver.exe");   
  driver = new ChromeDriver() ;  
  driver.get("https://www.google.com");  
  }  
 }  

What is Xpath , Absolute XPath and Relative XPath?

What is Absolute XPath and Relative XPath




What is XPath ?

XPath (XML Path Language), as defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is a query-language for selecting nodes from an XML document. In addition, XPath can be used to compute values (e.g., strings, numbers, or Boolean values) from the content of an XML document. The following statements are important information regarding XPath:

XPath is a syntax for defining parts of an XML document
XPath uses path expressions to navigate in XML documents
XPath contains a library of standard functions
XPath is a major element in XSLT and in XQuery
XPath is a W3C recommendation


How to use Absolute XPath and Relative XPath?

Using Absolute XPath

Using Absolute XPath the user can directly access or find elements from the DOM. The main disadvantage of using Absolute XPath is that, if there are any changes made in the path of the element then that XPath fails to identify that particular element.

Absolute XPath begins with a single forward slash "/", which means you can select the element from the root.

Here is an example of Absolute XPath

/html/body/div[5]/div[2]/div/div[2]/div[2]/h2[1]


Using Relative XPath

Using Relative XPath the user can select an element from anywhere from the DOM…
Relative XPath starts with the double forward slashes ‘//’, which means it can search the element anywhere in the webpage.

Here is an example of Relative XPath 

.//*[@id='answers']/h2[1]/a[1]




Selenium Complex and Dynamic XPath

Selenium XPATH

Selenium XPath using 'AND' operator.

I can assume  that you already know what is xpath , if you don't know you can refer my post What is Xpath , Absolute XPath and Relative XPath?  In selenium automation, if, using other locators, a particular element is not found then XPath is used to identify that particular element. XPath is also very powerful operator to identify complex or dynamic elements. Another reason to use XPath is using it with ‘AND’ operator.  Sometimes, when the user is not able to identify an element with single HTML property because more than one HTML property is required to identify one single element uniquely, the best possible choice is to identify the element is using XPath with ’AND’ operator. Here is an example:
Syntax

 //tagname[@attribute = '<value>' AND @attribute = '<value>']

 Example

 //*[@type='text' and @aria-label='First name' and @class= 'inputtext _58mg _5dba _2ph-']

Note: "*" means all note


Selenium XPath using 'OR' operator

Just like the 'AND', ‘OR’ is also a very powerful operator for identifying a web element. Suppose there is a situation where in a web page, after clicking the ‘submit’ button we are not sure what value it will result in. In this case the ‘success message’ may turn up as 'Successfully saved' or ’Your data saved successfully'. The elements in both the cases are unique in nature, but they might lead to the same result. Here, using the ‘OR’ operator we can avoid this problem.
Syntax

//tagname[@attribute = '<value>' OR @attribute = '<value>']


 Example

 //*[text()='Successfully saved' OR text()='Your data saved successfully']

Note: "*" means all note

XPath to get all child nodes of an element 

 Example

//*[@id='reg_form_box']/child::*

The above mentioned XPath will return all the child note of the element whose id is 'reg_form_box'


Few useful XPath 

  1. Contains() function
  2. Starts-with function
  3. Text() function

XPath axes methods

  • Following
  • Ancestor
  • Child
  • Preceding
  • Following-sibling
  • Parent
  • Self
  • Descendant


How to use Contain function in XPath


//*[contains(text(),'Search')]

//ul[@class='featureList' and contains(li, 'Type')]



How to use Starts-with function in XPath

//*[starts-with(text(),'Search')]

This XPath will find any text which start with "Search" from DOM. If a DOM contains below to HTML line , then this XPath will return both the elements.

<div id = 'username'>Search you name here </div>
<div > Searching your text</div>

How to use Text() function in XPath

//*[text()='Delhi']

This will search for "Delhi" text from complete DOM.

How to use the "Following" axes method function in XPath

//*[@id="ch_login_email"]//following::input

This above mentioned expression selects all the elements in the document of the current node( ) where the HTML tag is ‘input’.
If you want to select one particular element then you can use index.

 //*[@id="ch_login_email"]//following::input[1]

It will select first element .